TABLE 1 - Technical Operating and Descriptive Characteristics for GHG Forecasting Models
|Model size (data inputs and sourcecode)||Data inputs: 1015 MB Sourcecode: >120 MB||Data inputs: 720 MB Sourcecode: 710 MB||Data inputs: 1 MB Sourcecode: 903 KB Executable: 1 MB||Excel spreadsheet~ 5 MB||Data inputs: several MB Sourcecode: 208 KB|
|Hardware requirements||512 MB RAM; Pentium processor||256 MB RAM; Pentium 4; 2 GHz processor||Pentium 4; 1.7 GHz processor||128 MB RAM; Pentium III; >400 MHz; need 100 MB of space on hard drive||128 MB RAM; Pentium III; 1,000 MHz; need 1 GB for model operational output|
|Software/platform||PC platform; FORTRAN; Eviews software; OML linear programming software||Linux; DYNAMO modeling language||PC platform; FORTRAN; GUI Windows-based; MS Visual Studio; MS Access; MS Excel||PC platform; GUI with Windows 95 or higher but 98 recommended||Any platform; GAMS software|
|Run time||Standalone1: <1 minute Total Integrated2: 24 hours||5 minutes||<1 minute||Almost instantaneous; but if in simulation mode using stochastic distributions, then 3 hrs.||3060 minutes|
|Resources for maintenance||40 employees; 4 contractors||2 National Lab employees||2 National Lab employees||4 National Lab employees||2 National Lab employees|
|Transportation sector coverage||TRAN Module: LDV (car and light truck); Freight Truck (medium and heavy-duty); Aviation (wide and narrow-body, and general aviation; Rail (passenger and freight); Waterborne (passenger and freight); Miscellaneous (military, mass transit, recreational boats; criteria pollutant emissions and GHGs||End-user technologies by sector; LDV (car and light truck); heavy trucks; buses; airplanes; shipping; passenger rail; freight rail||Passenger mode: LDV (car and light truck), buses, rail, air, motorcycles.||Light-duty vehicle emissions for 8 advanced engine technologies (including hybrids and fuel cells) in combination with 15 fuel types including hydrogen, dimethyl ether and Fischer-Tropsch diesel||Light-duty vehicles; consumer choice model; auto manufacturers and fuel production and distribution sectors|
|Economic component||Uses Global Insight Macro Model and integrates all sectors of economy including employment and Census division regional models||Macro Growth Model fully integrated||ERB Model: 3 sector economyresidential/commercial, transportation, industrial; long-term trends in economic output||None/not applicable||Uses macroeconomic inputs|
|Forecast period||20002025||Through 2050||Through 2100||Current year of operation using driving cycle||Through 2030|
|Time period||Annual||5 year intervals||15 yearly increments||Current year of operation using federal driving cycle||Annual|
|Optimizing solution||Dynamic equilibrium convergence with iterations||Constrained least cost dynamic equilibrium||Constrained dynamic equilibrium||None/not applicable but can be used with stochastic processes||Nonlinear optimization solvers|
|Regionality||U.S. by 9 Census divisions; however, some supply modules may be using industry regions also||United States||14 global regions: U.S., Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Africa, Latin America, South Korea, and India||None/not applicable because it measures emissions from a vehicle type and not in aggregate||U.S. and some world energy supply areas|
|Emissions measured||Carbon and criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulates||Carbon dioxide (CO2), SOx, NOx||CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), CO, NOx, VOC||CO2, CH4, and N2O, and criteria pollutants: VOC, CO, NOx, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM-10), and SOx||CO2 greenhouse gas equivalent; however, the model outputs are usually run through GREET to calculate other emissions|
1 Standalone transportation modeonly the transportation module is operating while the other module components are static.
2 Total Integrated mode refers to a model run, which has all of the modules active or operating and represents a dynamic equilibrium solution.
Sources: Personal c+ommunication with model authorsNEMS Model: John Maples; Markal-Macro Model: Phillip Tseng; Mini-Cam Model: Son H. Kim; GREET Model: Michael Wang; TAFV Model: Paul Leiby.