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3. Presentation of Key Revenue and Expenditure Statistics

This section presents graphs that illustrate key statistics related to transportation finance. Figure 3 shows transportation revenue by revenue source, including own-source revenue, revenue diverted to other uses, and supporting revenue.

Total transportation revenue, which includes own-source revenue, revenue diverted to other uses, and supporting revenue, grew continuously from 2000 to 2012 except for declines in 2004, 2008, and 2009. The decline in total transportation revenue in 2008 and 2009 was mainly due to the sharp decrease in the government’s own-source revenue as a result of the Great Recession. Total revenue reached $347 billion (in chained 2009 dollars) in 2012, which is nearly 22 percent higher than total revenue (i.e., $284 billion in chained 2009 dollars) in 2000.

On average, about 57 percent of transportation revenue came from own-source revenue and 43 percent came from supporting revenue from 2000 to 2012. About 11 percent of revenue generated from transportation-related sources was diverted to other uses.

Figure 3. Transportation revenue by type: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Source: Table 3B of the Government Transportation Financial Statistics 2014, which will be released separately.

Figure 3. Transportation revenue by type: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Figure 4 . Revenue allocated to transportation by mode (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Note: The “others” mode includes rail, pipeline, and general support.
Source: Table 3B of the Government Transportation Financial Statistics 2014, which will be released separately.

Figure 4 . Revenue allocated to transportation by mode (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Figure 4 shows revenue allocated to transportation according to mode (i.e., highway, transit, air, water, and others). Base on the revenue allocated to transportation, which is the sum of own-source revenue and supporting revenue, an average of 63 percent of total revenue was distributed to highways from 2000 to 2012 (see figure 4). The shares of total revenue distributed to transit, air, water, and other modes are on average 16, 16, 4, and 1 percent, respectively, over the same period. In 2012, revenue allocated to highway and transit reached a peak of $210 and $51 billion (in chained 2009 dollars), respectively. For the air mode, transportation revenue has ranged between $34 to $49 billion (in chained 2009 dollars) over the period from 2000 to 2012.

Figure 5 illustrates transportation revenue and expenditures from 2000 to 2012. An increase in safety protection for travelers after the September 11, 2001 event led to consecutive increases in transportation expenditures for three years from 2001 to 2003 with a cumulative increase of 16.4% over the level of 2000.  In response to the Great Recession and to save and create jobs immediately, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 increased government spending on transportation infrastructure sharply, which pushed government transportation expenditure in 2009 to a record level of $311 billion (in chained 2009 dollars). Among the 13 years from 2000 to 2012, transportation expenditure was higher than transportation revenue in six years, four years following the September 11, 2001 event (2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004) and two years following the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009 and 2010).

Figure 5 . Transportation revenue versus transportation expenditure (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Source: Table 2B of the Government Transportation Financial Statistics 2014, which will be released separately.

Figure 5 . Transportation revenue versus transportation expenditure (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

On average, from 2000 to 2012, 66 percent of Federal transportation expenditures relied on revenue generated from transportation-related activities (i.e., own-source revenue), while 33 and 1 percent of expenditures came from the general fund and other sources, respectively (see figure 6). Since the September 11, 2001 event, the Federal government has significantly increased the transfer from the general fund to the transportation fund.  This transfer was $14 billion (in chained 2009 dollars) in 2000.  However, it averaged at about $30 billion each year from 2001 to 2012.

Figure 6 . Federal transportation expenditure by funding source: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Note: The “others” funding source includes other supporting revenue and intra-governmental fund.
Source: Table 17B of the Government Transportation Financial Statistics 2014, which will be released separately.

Figure 6 . Federal transportation expenditure by funding source: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Transportation expenditures incurred by State and local governments relied less on revenue generated from transportation-related activities (own-source revenue) (see figure 7). From 2000 to 2012, on average about 35 percent of State and local government transportation expenditures came from own-source revenue, while 30 percent of expenditures depended on the general fund and other supporting revenue. Grants between Federal, State, and local government supported about 24 percent of transportation expenditures incurred by State and local governments. Grants between governments included Federal grants to State and local governments, State grants to local governments, and local grants to State governments.

To stimulate the economy, total transportation expenditure by State and local governments reached the record level of $270 billion (in chained 2009 dollars) in 2009, which was 20 percent higher than in 2000. Of that amount, $168 billion was supported by own-source revenue, the general fund, and other supporting revenue. Grants accounted for about $70 billion.

Figure 7 . State and local transportation expenditure by funding source: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Note: The “others” funding source includes borrowing and unknown.
Source: Table 17B of the Government Transportation Financial Statistics 2014, which will be released separately.

Figure 7 . State and local transportation expenditure by funding source: 2000–2012 (in billions of chained 2009 dollars)

Updated: Friday, May 19, 2017