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Table 4-40: Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Locomotives

Table 4-40: Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Locomotives

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(g/bhph except where noted)

Pollutant Duty-cycle f Tier 0 1973-2001h Tier 1 2002-2004 Tier 2 2005+
Total HCb Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Total HCb Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
Nonmethane HCc Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Nonmethane HCc Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
Total HC equivalentd Line-haul 1.00 0.55 0.30
Total HC equivalentd Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60
CO Line-haul 5.0 2.2 1.5
CO Switch 8.0 2.5 2.4
CO Line-haul (optional standard) g 10.0 10.0 10.0
CO Switch (optional standard) g 12.0 12.0 12.0
NOx Line-haul 9.5 7.4 5.5
NOx Switch 14.0 11.0 8.1
Particulates Line-haul 0.60 0.45 0.20
Particulates Switch 0.72 0.54 0.24
Particulates Line-haul (optional standard) g 0.30 0.22 0.10
Particulates Switch (optional standard) g 0.36 0.27 0.12
Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h Steady-state 30% 25% 20%
Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h 30-second peak 40% 40% 40%
Smoke opacity (% opacity-normalized) h 3-second peak 50% 50% 50%
Useful life   7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j 7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j 7.5 MWh per hp or 10 years i, j

KEY: bhp = brake horsepower; bhph = brake horsepower hour; CO = carbon
monoxide; g = gram; h = hour; MW = megawatt; MWh = megawatt hour; NOx = nitrogen
oxides; PM = particulate matter.

a Locomotive standards apply to both new and remanufactured locomotives,
except as noted.

b The line-haul duty-cycle is weighted toward operation in the higher
power notches and is typical of line-haul applications. The switch duty-cycle
is typical of switch operations, with more emphasis on idle and low power notch
emissions. Locomotives generally are required to meet the standards for both
duty-cycles. However, Tier 0 dedicated switch locomotives rated at 2,300 hp
or less are only required to meet the switch duty-cycle standard.

c Tier 0 standards apply to all new production locomotives in the
2001 model year, as well as for any 1994 through 2001 model year freight locomotives
remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2001. They also apply to all other 1973 through
2001 model year locomotives remanufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2002. Other phase-in
options are also available for manufacturers (see 40 CFR 92 for more detail
on phase-in options).

d Total HC standards apply to locomotives powered by any fuel except
alcohol or natural gas or fuels primarily composed of alcohol or natural gas.

e Nonmethane HC standards apply to locomotives powered by natural
gas or fuels that are primarily composed of natural gas.

f Total HC equivalent standards apply to locomotives powered by
alcohol or fuels that are primarily composed of alcohol.

g Manufacturers and remanufacturers can elect to comply with the
alternate CO and PM standards. However, a manufacturer or remanufacturer using
the alternate standards must meet both the CO and the PM standards. This allows
locomotives to have higher CO emissions in exchange for meeting more stringent
PM standards.

h Smoke opacity values are normalized to be equivalent to a 1 meter
path length.

i For Tier 0 locomotives not equipped with MW/h meters, the minimum
useful life is 750,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first.

j This is a minimum standard. The certifying manufacturer or remanufacturer
must specify a longer useful life if the locomotive or locomotive engine is
designed to last longer than the applicable minimum useful life.

SOURCE: 40 CFR 92, Jul. 1, 2000, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Air and Radiation, personal communication, Aug. 28, 2001.

Updated: Sunday, May 21, 2017