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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation

Pipeline Movements Used in the Transportation Services Index

Tuesday, March 5, 2024


Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (government).


The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) publishes U.S. petroleum supply data in the Petroleum Supply Monthly report. The report highlights the supply and the disposition of crude oil and petroleum products at both national and regional levels. The data series in the report describe production, imports and exports, movements, and inventories of petroleum products in thousands of barrels. EIA compiles the data from nine monthly petroleum supply surveys, export data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, crude production data collected on Form EIA-914, and production data from State conservation agencies and the Minerals Management Service of the U. S. Department of Interior.

The Transportation Services Index uses data from two tables in the Petroleum Supply Monthly Report: Movements of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Pipeline Between PAD Districts (table 58) and Production of Crude Oil by PAD District and State (table 26). PAD refers to Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts, which are geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts per the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950.


The petroleum data used in BTS’ Transportation Services Index are from EIA’s nine monthly petroleum supply surveys. The nine monthly petroleum supply surveys are part of the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS consists of two data collection subsystems: the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (WPSRS) and the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS).

The nine monthly supply surveys are census surveys. As such, the estimates using these data are the sum of the edited, reported data. Where possible, EIA uses imputed values to account for activity when a company fails to file. Depending on the survey, imputed values may be estimates based on weekly reports, estimates equal to prior-month reported quantities, or estimates based on non-survey data (e.g. imports quantities may be imputed using data provided to EIA by U.S. Customs and Border Protection). Imputation normally accounts for very small quantities in published totals because response rates to monthly surveys tend to be very high, typically exceeding 97 percent. Adjustments are made to aggregate data from time to time. For example, unusual industry conditions, including fuel transitions, business practice shifts, or hurricane dislocations, may generate reporting anomalies and require adjustments.

There is a list of companies and facilities required to submit petroleum activity data for each of the nine monthly surveys. These lists are the survey frame. To diminish the chance of undercounting in missing new companies, the EIA updates the lists continually. EIA identifies new companies through continual review of petroleum industry periodicals, newspaper articles, and correspondence from respondents.


Legal Authority

EIA's authority to collect data comes from several laws, including the 1974 Federal Energy Administration (FEA) Act (P.L. 93-275, 15 USC 761), the 1976 Energy Conservation and Production Act (P.L. 94-385, 15 USC 790) and the 1977 Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act (P.L. 95-91, 42 USC 7135), which established EIA as the single federal government authority for energy information and gave EIA independence from the rest of DOE with respect to data collection, and from the whole government with respect to the content of EIA reports.

Data Quality Questions


  • Is this data source a frame or a sample?
    Monthly data are a frame.
  • Does the sample cover the entire frame? Or is some group missing or underrepresented in the sample?
    The data sources are Form EIA-812, Monthly Product Pipeline Report and Form EIA-813, Monthly Crude Oil Report. Respondents to Form EIA-812 include all product pipeline companies that carry petroleum products (including interstate, intrastate, and intra-company pipelines) in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Respondents to Form EIA-813 include all companies which carry or store 1,000 barrels or more of crude oil. Included in this survey are gathering and trunk pipeline companies (including interstate, intrastate, and intra-company pipelines), crude oil tank farm operators, and companies transporting Alaskan crude oil by water (to U.S. ports) in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
     While the data are a complete census, nonsampling errors may occur. There are two categories of nonsampling errors: random and systematic. With random error, on average, and over time, overestimated values will total the same as underestimated values. Therefore, over time, random errors do not bias the data, but they may give an inaccurate portrayal at any point in time. On the other hand, systematic error is a source of bias in the data because these patterns of errors are made repeatedly.



  • Are there duplicate records?
  • Are there outliers in the data?
    Yes, but EIA runs automated edit programs against all of the data and follows up with reporting companies after finding significant outliers or discrepancies.
  • Are data missing for individual records? If so, how are they identified?
    Pipeline operators are required by law to report, but there have been some cases of no response. EIA imputes data values for nonresponders and then follows up with companies to get the missing reports. Final data published in the Petroleum Supply Annual typically includes data from all or nearly all pipeline operators. For monthly data, EIA response rates tend to be very high (generally 97 percent or better). EIA publishes an article on data quality each year in the Petroleum Supply Monthly.
  • How accurate are the key data fields?
    Accuracy of these monthly
     surveys tend to be very high, typically exceeding 97 percent. The values typically are from companies accounting systems, and hence tend to be accurate.
    Accuracy of petroleum supply data can be found at
  • Are variances available for this data source? If so, what method was used to calculate variances?


  • Are the data comparable over time within the data source? If not, can data be made to be comparable (e.g., combining two data series)?
    Data are generally consistent over time. EIA sometimes adds or deletes product detail. For example, detailed breakdowns within finished gasoline may change over time.

Other Questions and Important Information