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Table 4-43: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates per Vehicle by Vehicle Type using Gasoline and Diesel

Table 4-43: Estimated National Average Vehicle Emissions Rates per Vehicle by Vehicle Type using Gasoline and Diesel

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(Grams per mile)

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
GASOLINE
(assuming zero RFG)
                                         
Light-duty
vehicles
                                         
Exhaust
HC
2.79 2.50 2.23 1.98 1.77 1.57 1.39 1.25 1.14 1.05 0.97 0.89 0.81 0.74 0.61 0.52 0.46 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.33
Nonexhaust
HC
1.21 1.17 1.12 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.03 1.01 0.98 0.95 0.91 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.77 0.72 0.68 0.62 0.57 0.51 0.46
Total
HC
4.00 3.67 3.35 3.07 2.84 2.62 2.41 2.26 2.12 2.00 1.88 1.77 1.65 1.54 1.37 1.25 1.13 1.04 0.95 0.87 0.79
Exhaust
CO
42.89 39.15 35.54 32.23 29.32 26.60 24.18 22.38 20.86 19.54 18.53 17.80 16.98 16.14 13.79 12.57 10.87 10.28 9.68 9.20 8.73
Exhaust
NOx
2.70 2.47 2.27 2.09 1.94 1.78 1.64 1.55 1.46 1.35 1.29 1.25 1.20 1.14 1.00 0.92 0.79 0.73 0.67 0.61 0.56
Light-duty
trucks
                                         
Exhaust
HC
3.68 3.33 3.00 2.71 2.45 2.21 1.96 1.80 1.65 1.54 1.45 1.35 1.24 1.13 0.96 0.78 0.69 0.64 0.55 0.51 0.48
Nonexhaust
HC
1.37 1.30 1.21 1.17 1.13 1.11 1.08 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.71 0.66 0.62 0.58 0.53
Total
HC
5.05 4.63 4.21 3.88 3.59 3.32 3.04 2.85 2.68 2.54 2.43 2.30 2.14 1.98 1.76 1.54 1.40 1.31 1.17 1.09 1.01
Exhaust
CO
56.23 51.99 47.93 44.34 40.77 37.51 34.47 32.20 30.23 28.28 26.81 25.43 23.85 21.51 18.76 16.23 14.33 13.52 12.49 11.76 11.02
Exhaust
NOx
2.62 2.42 2.26 2.11 1.98 1.84 1.73 1.65 1.59 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.50 1.45 1.32 1.21 1.09 1.02 0.94 0.88 0.81
Heavy-duty
vehicles
                                         
Exhaust
HC
3.66 3.34 3.03 2.76 2.39 2.16 1.94 1.73 1.51 1.35 1.22 1.09 0.98 0.82 0.73 0.64 0.53 0.48 0.42 0.32 0.28
Nonexhaust
HC
2.74 2.60 2.34 2.25 2.16 2.07 1.97 1.87 1.79 1.69 1.62 1.54 1.48 1.41 1.35 1.24 1.14 1.07 0.99 0.92 0.86
Total
HC
6.40 5.94 5.37 5.00 4.55 4.24 3.91 3.60 3.29 3.04 2.84 2.63 2.46 2.24 2.08 1.88 1.67 1.54 1.41 1.24 1.14
Exhaust
CO
85.61 78.64 72.12 65.92 60.01 54.16 48.52 43.26 38.82 34.54 31.08 27.59 24.73 20.60 18.46 16.73 14.51 13.55 12.38 9.96 9.42
Exhaust
NOx
7.19 6.96 6.72 6.52 6.35 6.11 5.89 5.73 5.56 5.40 5.26 5.13 5.01 4.91 4.62 4.28 3.73 3.33 2.94 2.58 2.25
Motorcycles                                          
Exhaust
HC
2.01 1.88 1.82 1.75 1.72 1.69 1.63 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61
Nonexhaust
HC
0.74 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68
Total
HC
2.74 2.60 2.54 2.46 2.43 2.40 2.34 2.32 2.32 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.30 2.30 2.29 2.29 2.29 2.29
Exhaust
CO
15.15 14.78 14.77 14.76 14.76 14.67 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.58 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59 14.59
Exhaust
NOx
1.26 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.26 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25
DIESEL                                          
Light-duty
vehicles
                                         
Exhaust
HC
0.68 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.73 0.60 0.58 0.48 0.36 0.29 0.23 0.18
Exhaust
CO
1.49 1.52 1.56 1.60 1.64 1.69 1.73 1.76 1.78 1.79 1.78 1.75 1.73 1.74 1.59 1.57 1.41 1.21 1.09 0.99 0.90
Exhaust
NOx
1.83 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.88 1.86 1.85 1.81 1.72 1.62 1.54 1.43 1.32 1.11 0.85 0.69 0.53 0.42
Light-duty
trucks
                                         
Exhaust
HC
1.59 1.60 1.64 1.64 1.68 1.67 1.69 1.63 1.51 1.42 1.02 0.88 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.80 0.79 0.63 0.55 0.48 0.44
Exhaust
CO
2.67 2.70 2.76 2.77 2.85 2.85 2.89 2.79 2.60 2.44 1.77 1.54 1.66 1.68 1.68 1.37 1.34 1.06 0.93 0.82 0.76
Exhaust
NOx
2.71 2.66 2.62 2.56 2.53 2.46 2.42 2.31 2.17 2.07 1.76 1.64 1.67 1.66 1.59 1.37 1.30 1.09 0.94 0.82 0.72
Heavy-duty
vehicles
                                         
Exhaust
HC
2.21 1.97 1.74 1.55 1.38 1.23 1.10 1.00 0.92 0.85 0.79 0.74 0.69 0.61 0.58 0.54 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.42 0.39
Exhaust
CO
10.06 9.22 8.43 7.71 7.00 6.32 5.73 5.23 4.80 4.43 4.10 3.82 3.58 3.37 3.19 3.05 2.90 2.66 2.31 2.01 1.75
Exhaust
NOx
23.34 22.14 21.47 21.10 20.75 20.49 20.24 20.04 19.84 19.14 18.05 16.68 15.52 13.92 12.50 11.45 10.55 9.60 8.61 7.77 6.87
Average
Emissions Per Vehicle, Gasoline and Diesel Fleet
                                         
Exhaust
HC
2.98 2.70 2.42 2.18 1.96 1.76 1.56 1.43 1.32 1.23 1.16 1.08 0.99 0.91 0.77 0.65 0.58 0.54 0.48 0.45 0.42
Nonexhaust
HC
1.21 1.16 1.10 1.06 1.04 1.01 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.77 0.74 0.69 0.65 0.60 0.56 0.51 0.47
Total
HC
4.20 3.86 3.52 3.24 3.00 2.77 2.55 2.40 2.26 2.14 2.04 1.93 1.81 1.68 1.51 1.35 1.23 1.15 1.04 0.96 0.89
Exhaust
CO
45.07 41.43 37.93 34.76 31.84 29.12 26.65 24.90 23.40 22.00 20.94 20.02 18.94 17.49 15.24 13.56 11.95 11.32 10.55 9.93 9.37
Exhaust
NOx
4.15 3.92 3.75 3.61 3.49 3.36 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.02 2.91 2.78 2.65 2.48 2.25 2.07 1.87 1.73 1.57 1.44 1.30

KEY: CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbon; NOx = nitrogen oxide; RFG = reformulated gasoline.

NOTES

Data are as of July 1 of each year. Vehicles
types are defined as follows: light-duty vehicles (passenger cars up to 6,000
lb GVWR); light-duty trucks (pickups and minivans up to 8,500 lb GVWR);
heavy-duty vehicles (8,501 lbs or more GVWR); motorcycle (highway only). This
table is based on MOBILE6, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)
latest highway vehicle emissions factor model. Interested readers can learn
more about the MOBILE6 model at the following USEPA Internet site
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/m6.htm.

Emissions factors are national averages based
on the following assumptions: ambient temperature 75 F, daily temperature
range 60-84 F, average traffic speed 27.6 mph (representative of overall
traffic in urban areas), standard operating mode (cold-start, hot-start,
stabilized), vehicle-miles traveled fractions, no inspection/maintenance or
antitampering programs, and gasoline volatility 9.0 per square inch RVP (Reid
vapor pressure).

See table 4-39 for emissions from vehicles
operating on reformulated gasoline.

Data for nonexhaust HC is negligible for
diesel light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles.

Average emissions per vehicle rates assume a
fleet comprised exclusively of gasoline and diesel vehicles. For emissions
estimates of a fleet using RFG and diesel, see table 4-39.

SOURCE

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, personal communication, June
28, 2010.

Updated: Sunday, May 21, 2017