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Federal Exhaust Emission Certification Standards for Newly Manufactured Gasoline- and Diesel-Powered Light-Duty Trucks
(Category LDT1) (Grams per mile)
KEY: CO=carbon monoxide; CVS = constant volume sampler; GVWR=gross vehicle weight rating; HC=hydrocarbons; LVW=loaded vehicle weight; NMHC=nonmethane hydrocarbons; NMOG= nonmethane organic gases; NOx=nitrogen oxides.
a Light-duty truck categories LDT1-LDT4 were not created until 1994. From 1968 to 1978, all trucks with a GVWR up to 6,000 pounds were classified as light-duty trucks and were required to meet the same standards. As of 1979, the maximum weight was raised to 8,500 pounds GVWR. During 1988-93, light duty trucks were divided into two subcategories that coincide with the current LDT1-LDT4 categories. The standards for LDT2, LDT3, and LDT4 are shown in tables 4-32 through 4-34.
b The test procedure for measuring exhaust emissions has changed several times over the course of vehicle emissions regulation. The 7-mode procedure was used through model year 1971 and was replaced by the CVS-72 procedure beginning in model year 1972. The CVS-75 procedure became the test procedure as of model year 1975. While it may appear that total HC and CO standards were relaxed in 1972-74, these standards were actually more stringent due to the more stringent nature of the CVS-72 test procedure. Additional standards for CO and composite standards for NMHC and NOx tested over the new Supplemental Federal Test Procedure will be phased-in beginning with model year 2000. These standards are not shown in this table.
c Emissions standards had to be met for a useful life of 5 years/50,000 miles through model year 1983, and a full useful life of 11 years/120,000 miles was defined for 1985-93 (several useful life options were available for 1984). Beginning in model year 1994, emissions standards were established for an intermediate useful life of 5 years/50,000 miles as well as a full useful life (full useful life standards are shown in parentheses). HC standards, however, were established only for full useful life. Tier 1 exhaust standards, except particulates standards, were phased in during 1994-96 at a rate of 40%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Particulate matter standards were phased-in at a rate of 40%, 80%, and 100% during 1995-97.
d The cold CO emissions standard is measured at 20 0F (rather than 75 0F) and is applicable for a 5-year/50,000-mile useful life.
e GVWR is the maximum design loaded weight. LVW is the curb weight (nominal vehicle weight) plus 300 pounds.
f Manufacturers can opt to certify vehicles for a full useful life of 15 years/150,000 miles and either have (1) intermediate useful life standards waived or (2) receive additional NOx credits.
g The "Prior to controls" column reports emissions estimates of a typical newly manufactured car in the years before exhaust emissions certification standard were implemented.
h No estimate available.
i In 1968-69, exhaust emissions standards were issued in parts per million rather than grams per mile and are, therefore, incompatible with this table.
j No standard has been set.
k The term "tier" refers to a level of standards for specific years. Interim Tier 2 refers to an intermediate level of standards that move manufacturers toward compliance with Tier 2 standards. Interim Tier 2 and Tier 2 standards are established as "bins." Each bin is a set of standards for NOx, CO, NMOG, formaldehyde, and particulates (HC and NMHC standards are dropped for Tier 2 and Interim Tier 2). Manufacturers may certify any given vehicle family to any of the bins available for that vehicle class as long as the resulting sales-weighted corporate average NOx standard is met for the full useful life. The Tier 2 corporate average NOx standard is 0.07 grams/mile. Interim corporate-based average NOx standards are based on vehicle type. The interim corporate sales-weighted average for LDT1 vehicles is 0.3 grams/mile. Tier 2 standards will be phased in at a rate of 25% in 2004, 50% in 2005, 75% in 2006, and 100% in 2007. During this period, all LDT1 vehicles not meeting the Tier 2 standards must meet Interim Tier 2 standards.
40 CFR 86, Subpart A (July 1, 2000).
Federal Register, Vol. 65, No. 28, pp. 6851-6858.