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Number of Pilot-Reported Near Midair Collisions (NMAC) by Degree of Hazard
NMACs are reported voluntarily to the FAA so these numbers may not be representative. Reporters consist of pilots of air carriers, general aviation and other aircraft involved in public-use operations. Incidents involving military aircraft may be included if they also involved a civilian aircraft.
KEY: R = revised, U = data are not available.
a A situation where collision avoidance was due to chance, rather than an act on the part of the pilot. Less than 100 feet of aircraft separation would be considered critical.
b An incident that would probably have resulted in a collision if no action had been taken by either pilot. Less than 500 feet would usually be required in this case.
c When direction and altitude would have made a midair collision improbable regardless of evasive action taken.
d No determination could be made due to insufficient evidence or unusual circumstances, or because incident is still under investigation.
e Before Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 121 applied only to aircraft with more than 30 seats or a maximum payload capacity of more than 7,500 pounds. Since Mar. 20, 1997, 14 CFR 121 includes aircraft with 10 or more seats that formerly operated under 14 CFR 125. This change makes it difficult to compare pre-1997 data with more recent years' data.
1980-85: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Aviation Safety Statistical Handbook Annual Report (Washington, DC: Annual issues) and personal communication, Aug. 6, 2002.
1990-2019: Ibid., Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System, Data & Information, NMACS Database Query Tool, available at http://www.asias.faa.gov/ as of Sept. 15, 2020.